The Central Bank of Nigeria’s Monetary Policy Committee will today (Monday) begin its two-day bi-monthly meeting to review the state of the economy.
It is expected to take key policy decisions that will influence the direction of the economy.
Top on the agenda of the meeting is the need to tackle the biting recession occasioned by slow growth in the economy, rising inflation, and the volatility in the foreign exchange market.
Economic experts expect the 12-member MPC to begin an expansionary monetary policy by reducing the Monetary Policy Rate (the benchmark interest rate), and lower the Cash Reserve Ratio.
According to the economists, the MPC will need to reduce the liquidity ratio and take measures to address the lingering volatility in the foreign exchange market.
The Chief Executive Officer, Financial Derivatives Limited, Mr. Bismarck Rewane, said the MPC might have no other choice than to purse an expansionary monetary policy considering the state of the economy and the recent stimulus package announced by the fiscal authority.
He said, “We expect an accommodative monetary policy as against a contractionary one. The CBN will want to complement the effort of the fiscal authority, especially as regards the stimulus package that was recently announced.”
In an economic bulletin released on Friday, Rewane added, “The divergence between the year-on-year headline inflation and the annualised monthly rate of 6.17 per cent poses a major dilemma to the apex bank. Even though the monthly measure is more relevant to inflation expectations, it may need to maintain consistency with the previous measure.
“The clamour for a stimulus package and lower interest rates by the government and the public will force a more accommodative stance by the committee in spite of other considerations.
“The high inflation environment has reduced consumer spending, real returns and corporate profitability margins. The markets have reacted accordingly.”
The Chief Executive Officer, Cowry Asset Management Limited, Mr. Johnson Chukwu, was also of the view that the MPC would begin an accommodative monetary policy.
He said, “It is clear that we have not been able to control inflation with the tightening policy. If the overriding consideration is to reflate the economy, the MPC will need to reverse the last increase made in the MPR by reducing it from 14 to 12 per cent. The committee may need to cut the Cash Reserve Ratio from 22.5 per cent to 20 per cent and then to 15 per cent later.
A professor of Economics at the Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sheriffdeen Tella, also said he expected the committee to reduce the MPR in order to lower interest rate on bank loans and subsequently boost credit in the economy.
He said, “This is a time to begin an expansionary monetary policy. The MPC must reduce the MPR, reduce the liquidity ratio or maintain the status quo. We have seen that the inflation we are experiencing is cost-push, i.e caused by increase in cost of capital and not by demand pull. So we need to reduce the cost of capital in the economy.
“There is also a need for the committee to tell us how they intend to tackle the volatility in the exchange rate. They need to tell us whether the volatility is being caused by speculators or real demand. If it is caused by real demand, there is nothing they can do about it. However, if it is activities of speculators, then they must state how they intend to deal with it.”
The MPC had during its July meeting hiked the MPR by 200 basis points to 14 per cent.
The 14 per cent MPR announced by the CBN is the highest in over a decade.
However, the committee left the CRR and the liquidity ratio unchanged at 22.5 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively.
The CBN Governor, Mr. Godwin Emefiele, who announced the decision of the committee after a two-day meeting held at the apex bank’s headquarters in Abuja, said eight out of the 12 members of the committee attended the meeting.
Out of the eight, he said five members voted in favour of monetary tightening, while the other three voted to hold the MPR at 12 per cent.
In taking the decision to increase the MPR, the CBN governor said the committee was faced with two policy choices – whether to hold or reduce the rate to stimulate growth, or increase it in order to curb inflation.
Emefiele, however, said when considered from the standpoint that the primary mandate of the CBN was to maintain price stability, the committee decided to focus on its mandate by checking inflationary pressures.
The governor explained that members of the committee agreed that the economy was passing through a difficult phase, adding that the concern was that headline inflation had risen significantly in June.
The committee, he said, noted that inflation had risen significantly, eroding real purchasing power of fixed income earners and dragging down growth.
The CBN governor said the high inflationary trend had culminated in negative real interest rates in the economy, noting that this was discouraging savings.
According to him, members of the committee also noted that the negative real interest rates did not support the recent flexible foreign exchange market as foreign investors’ attitude had remained lukewarm, showing unwillingness to bring in new capital under the circumstance.
He said the decision to raise interest rate would give impetus to improving the liquidity of the foreign exchange market and the urgent need to deepen the market to ensure self-sustainability.
The governor said members were of the opinion that the liquidity of the foreign exchange market would boost manufacturing and industrial output, thereby stimulating the much needed growth.
No Plan to Increase Fuel Price; Says FG
The Federal Government has stated that it has no plan to increase fuel price during the yuletide period.
This assurance is coming amid the nationwide fuel scarcity which has pushed the price of petrol above N250 in many retail stations.
Investors King learnt that fuel is being held for N250 per litre in Abuja and several other cities across the country while black marketers are charging between N400 and N450 per litre.
The scarcity and the high price of fuel are however becoming unbearable for many Nigerians, especially those who have reasons to embark on business travel for the December festivals.
According to the National Public Relations Officer, Independent Petroleum Marketers Association of Nigeria (IPMAN), Chief Ukadike Chinedu, most of the association members, who owned the bulk of the filling stations across the country, were now subjected to purchasing PMS at about N220/litre, which was why many outlets currently dispensed at about N250/litre and above.
He noted that the cost of the commodity has been on the rise due to its unavailability and other concerns in the sector.
He added that the price of fuel could be sold from N350/litre to N400/litre before the end of the year.
Meanwhile, a number of senior officials at the NNPC had stated that the subsidy was becoming too burdensome on the national oil company, as this was another reason for the scarcity of PMS.
According to a source who is familiar with the development as reported by Punch News, “How can we continue to import 60 million litres of petrol daily and keep subsidising it, while millions of litres are either diverted or cannot be accounted for? The burden is too much, as you rightly captured in that story”.
Investors King understands that NNPC is the sole importer of petroleum into the country and it pays billions of naira every month to subsidise the product to N147 per litre.
Reuters News reported that in August 2022, NNPC paid more than $1 billion as fuel subsidy while the federal government earmarked N3.6 trillion as fuel subsidy in the 2023 budget proposal.
Fuel Scarcity: NNPC Declares 2billion Liters in Stock, Blames Scarcity on Road Construction
NNPC Claimed it as 2 billion litres of fuel despite scarcity
The Nigerian National Petroleum Company (NNPC) has blamed the recent fuel scarcity on road construction around Apapa, noting that the corporation has about 2 billion litres of fuel in stock.
According to a statement issued by NNPC Executive Vice President, Downstream, Mr Adeyemi Adetunji, the Nigeria National Petroleum Company has about 2 billion litres of fuel which can last the country conveniently for more than 30 days.
The Executive Vice President further blamed the queues on the road construction around Apapa axis which has slowed down the movement of oil trucks to several parts of the country.
“The recent queues in Lagos are largely due to ongoing road infrastructure projects around Apapa and access road challenges in Lagos” he said.
He however noted that more filling stations should have Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) otherwise known as petrol with the ease in gridlock along the apapa axis.
“The gridlock is easing out and NNPC Ltd has programmed vessels and trucks to unconstrained depots and massive load outs from depots to states are closely monitored,” he said.
Investors King gathered that several states including Abuja have been impacted by the supply chain difficulty caused by the construction around Apapa.
The scarcity of fuel has therefore led to the hike in price. In most places across the country, fuel is sold as high as N250 per litre. Several fuel stations are already taking advantage of the situation coupled with the increase in the movement of people and goods owing to the December festivals.
Speaking further, Adeyemi noted that the situation will soon be back to normalcy as NNPC is taking measures to address the situation.
“We want to reassure Nigerians that NNPC has sufficient products and we significantly increased product loading in selected depots and extended hours at strategic stations to ensure sufficiency nationwide.
“We are also working with industry stakeholders to ensure normalcy is returned as soon as possible,” he concluded.
Global Growth to Drop Below 2% in 2023, Says Citi
Citigroup on Wednesday forecast global growth to slow to below 2% next year, echoing similar projections by major financial institutions such as Goldman Sachs, Barclays, and J.P. Morgan.
Strategists at the brokerage cited continued challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine war — which skyrocketed inflation to decades-high levels and triggered aggressive policy tightening — as reasons behind the outlook.
“We see global performance as likely (being) plagued by ‘rolling’ country-level recessions through the year ahead,” said Citi strategists, led by Nathan Sheets.
While the Wall-Street investment bank expects the U.S. economy to grow 1.9% this year, it is seen more than halving to 0.7% in 2023.
It expects year-on-year U.S. inflation at 4.8% next year, with the U.S. Federal Reserve’s terminal rate seen between 5.25% and 5.5%.
Among other geographies, Citi sees the UK and euro area falling into recession by the end of this year, as both economies face the heat of energy constraints on supply and demand front, along with tighter monetary and fiscal policies.
For 2023, Citi projects UK and euro area to contract 1.5% and 0.4%, respectively.
In China, the brokerage expects the government to soften its zero-COVID policy, which is seen driving a 5.6% growth in gross domestic product next year.
Emerging markets, meanwhile, are seen growing 3.7%, with India’s 5.7% growth — slower than this year’s 6.7% prediction — seen leading among major economies.
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