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After $21bn Loss, FG Moves to Amend Deep Offshore Act



  • After $21bn Loss, FG Moves to Amend Deep Offshore Act

Nigeria lost a whopping $21 billion to its failure to implement the premium element governing the country’s oil and gas production sharing contracts (PSCs) as provided under the Deep Offshore and Inland Basin Production Sharing Contracts Act, the Minister of State for Petroleum, Dr. Ibe Kachikwu disclosed wednesday.

Accordingly, the federal government has initiated moves to amend the Deep Offshore Act, in order to increase government’s revenue from crude oil sales when prices exceed $20 a barrel.

The Deep Offshore and Inland Basins PSC Act was enacted in 1993 to provide the fiscal framework for foreign investments in deep offshore and inland basin acreages in the oil and gas sector.

It was also targeted at addressing the challenges confronting the joint operating agreements (JOA), which paved the way for the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) to become the concession holder while the international oil companies (IOCs) became the contractors.

Following the agreements entered into by NNPC with eight IOCs in 1993, the country was able to attract foreign investments running into billions of dollars to develop oil acreages located in deep waters offshore Nigeria.

Some of such oil fields include the 225,000 barrel per day (bpd) Bonga oil field operated by Shell, the 250,000bpd Agbami oil field operated by Chevron, and the 180,000bpd oil field operated by Total. Others in the pipeline are the Egina and Zabazaba oil acreages.

But Kachikwu, while briefing State House correspondents at the end of yesterday’s weekly Federal Executive Council (FEC) meeting presided over by Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo, said failure to implement the relevant clause in the Deep Offshore Act governing the PSCs, effectively robbed Nigeria of $21 billion.

He said under the Deep Offshore Act, once the price of crude oil exceeded $20 per barrel, the “premium element” should have been distributed in accordance with the PSCs between the government and IOCs in a manner that the nation would have derived more value for its oil.

He said because of the failure of the Nigerian government to take the required steps in the past 20 years, the inertia had cost it such a huge sum, thus prompting him to seek FEC’s approval to amend Section 15 of the Act, with a view to giving the policy the required bite.

According to him, following council’s approval, the eventual amendment of the Act was expected to yield $2 billion extra revenue to the government’s coffers.

“The first and most substantial for me is the decision to work with the Attorney-General of the Federation to amend Section 15 of the Deep Offshore Act.

“Under the Deep Offshore Act, there was a provision in 1993 that says once the price of crude exceeds $20 a barrel, the government will take steps to ensure that the premium element is then distributed under an agreed formula so that we can get more from our oil. But over the last 20 years, nothing really was done.

“From 1993 till now, cumulatively, we have lost a total of $21 billion just because the government did not act. We did not exercise our rights under the Act.

“In 2013, there was a notice to oil companies that we were going to do this, but we did not follow through in terms of going to council to get approval.

“One of the things we’ve worked very hard on is to get that amendment because once we do, the net effect for us is close to $2 billion extra revenue for the federation,” he explained.

The minister noted it would be difficult to recoup past losses, given that oil companies that were not paying the government a premium for sales over $20 a barrel were not breaking the law.

However, the administration will explore whether there is an opportunity to get back some of the money, Kachikwu added.

Kachikwu also said FEC approved the award of a $2.7 billion contract to three consortia to construct the Abuja-Kaduna-Kano pipeline project to enhance the movement of gas from southern Nigeria to the north.

According to him, the pipeline will improve power generation and availability of gas in the hinterland, pointing out that so far, gas and power had been trapped in the southern corridor in the country because of the non-availability of pipeline infrastructure to convey it to the north.

Kachikwu also disclosed that FEC awarded another contract to a consortium for the construction of the Odidi pipeline from Warri and the southern marshlands to also convey gas produced through the Nigerian Gas Company (NGC), a subsidiary of NNPC.

He said the two projects would not only boost gas delivery but also facilitate Nigeria’s transition “from a crude oil nation to a gas environment”.

On the current fuel shortages, Kachikwu said concerted efforts were being made to ease the queues at petrol stations, threatening that any petrol station caught hoarding fuel henceforth, would lose the entire fuel in its storage, which he said would be sold to motorists at no cost.

He said only by fixing Nigeria’s refineries would the country ultimately bring an end to the recurring fuel shortages, even as he spoke on the efforts being made to fix the refineries and also bring new ones on board.

“I believe that the refineries can be fixed. We came up with a model to find private sector funding for the refineries and that’s being done.

“We expect that before the end of this year, we will at least get to the final contracting stage in terms of announcing those who are going to take these up.

“It takes about six months to do this and do it thoroughly but that requires raising close to N2 billion from private sector participants to get this done.

“A lot is being done on refining, that is because we have focused on it so much to the point where I have put my credibility on the line and that’s fine.

“But it is important that we stop importing petroleum products because there is just no justification for it. We have encouraged the private sector and Dangote Group is working very hard to bring their refinery on-stream.

“I have told the officials of Dangote that as opposed to the 2020 completion date that they are looking at, they should assist us by trying to deliver their refinery in 2019.

“Our own refineries, if we complete the procurement processes by the end of this year, they would begin their 12-18 months resuscitation or turn around maintenance (TAM) by early next year.

“So, if they do that, hopefully towards the end of 2019, we should have the three refineries being able to produce for the first time in decades at the 445,000bpd name-plate capacity.

“We are also looking at the Agip refinery. We are also looking at the Petrolex refinery that the vice-president and myself went wednesday to commission.

“We have commissioned their (Petrolex) storage facilities, and they have been granted approvals through us for an elevation of their refining plan from 150,000 barrels a day to 250,000 barrels a day.

“Given the history they have had in the success of building their storage and maritime facilities, I believe they can meet up.

“Then if you take the smaller modular refineries which are close to nine in number and are getting closer to the point of investment decisions, you would see that holistically we are addressing the refining issue.

“If we do that, we are looking at the current refining capability of less than 100,000 barrels in real terms – in fact, less than 50,000 barrels in real terms – to refining capability of 1.2million barrels per day.

“What this means is that we will be refining in excess of what our current share in the JV crude production is. The reality is that this is something that has been there for a long time and we are addressing it frontally,” he said.

CEO/Founder Investors King Ltd, a foreign exchange research analyst, contributing author on New York-based Talk Markets and, with over a decade experience in the global financial markets.

Crude Oil

Oil Dips Below $62 in New York Though Banks Say Rally Can Extend




Oil Dips Below $62 in New York Though Banks Say Rally Can Extend

Oil retreated from an earlier rally with investment banks and traders predicting the market can go significantly higher in the months to come.

Futures in New York pared much of an earlier increase to $63 a barrel as the dollar climbed and equities slipped. Bank of America said prices could reach $70 at some point this year, while Socar Trading SA sees global benchmark Brent hitting $80 a barrel before the end of the year as the glut of inventories built up during the Covid-19 pandemic is drained by the summer.

The loss of oil output after the big freeze in the U.S. should help the market firm as much of the world emerges from lockdowns, according to Trafigura Group. Inventory data due later Tuesday from the American Petroleum Institute and more from the Energy Department on Wednesday will shed more light on how the Texas freeze disrupted U.S. oil supply last week.

Oil has surged this year after Saudi Arabia pledged to unilaterally cut 1 million barrels a day in February and March, with Goldman Sachs Group Inc. predicting the rally will accelerate as demand outpaces global supply. Russia and Riyadh, however, will next week once again head into an OPEC+ meeting with differing opinions about adding more crude to the market.

“The freeze in the U.S. has proved supportive as production was cut,” said Hans van Cleef, senior energy economist at ABN Amro. “We still expect that Russia will push for a significant rise in production,” which could soon weigh on prices, he said.


  • West Texas Intermediate for April fell 27 cents to $61.43 a barrel at 9:20 a.m. New York time
  • Brent for April settlement fell 8 cents to $65.16

Brent’s prompt timespread firmed in a bullish backwardation structure to the widest in more than a year. The gap rose above $1 a barrel on Tuesday before easing to 87 cents. That compares with 25 cents at the start of the month.

JPMorgan Chase & Co. and oil trader Vitol Group shot down talk of a new oil supercycle, though they said a lack of supply response will keep prices for crude prices firm in the short term.

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Crude Oil

Oil Prices Rise With Storm-hit U.S. Output Set for Slow Return



Crude oil

Oil Prices Rise With Storm-hit U.S. Output Set for Slow Return

Oil prices rose on Monday as the slow return of U.S. crude output cut by frigid conditions served as a reminder of the tight supply situation, just as demand recovers from the depths of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Brent crude was up $1.38, or 2.2%, at $64.29 per barrel. West Texas Intermediate gained $1.38, or 2.33%, to trade at $60.62 per barrel.

Abnormally cold weather in Texas and the Plains states forced the shutdown of up to 4 million barrels per day (bpd) of crude production along with 21 billion cubic feet of natural gas output, analysts estimated.

Shale oil producers in the region could take at least two weeks to restart the more than 2 million barrels per day (bpd) of crude output affected, sources said, as frozen pipes and power supply interruptions slow their recovery.

“With three-quarters of fracking crews standing down, the likelihood of a fast resumption is low,” ANZ Research said in a note.

For the first time since November, U.S. drilling companies cut the number of oil rigs operating due to the cold and snow enveloping Texas, New Mexico and other energy-producing centres.

OPEC+ oil producers are set to meet on March 4, with sources saying the group is likely to ease curbs on supply after April given a recovery in prices, although any increase in output will likely be modest given lingering uncertainty over the pandemic.

“Saudi Arabia is eager to pursue yet higher prices in order to cover its social break-even expenses at around $80 a barrel while Russia is strongly focused on unwinding current cuts and getting back to normal production,” said SEB chief commodity analyst Bjarne Schieldrop.

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Crude Oil

Crude Oil Rose Above $65 Per Barrel as US Production Drop Due to Texas Weather




Crude Oil Rose Above $65 Per Barrel as US Production Drop Due to Texas Weather

Oil prices rose to $65.47 per barrel on Thursday as crude oil production dropped in the US due to frigid Texas weather.

The unusual weather has left millions in the dark and forced oil producers to shut down production. According to reports, at least the winter blast has claimed 24 lives.

Brent crude oil gained $2 to $65.47 on Thursday morning before pulling back to $64.62 per barrel around 11:00 am Nigerian time.

U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude rose 2.3 percent to settle at $61.74 per barrel.

“This has just sent us to the next level,” said Bob Yawger, director of energy futures at Mizuho in New York. “Crude oil WTI will probably max out somewhere pretty close to $65.65, refinery utilization rate will probably slide to somewhere around 76%,” Yawger said.

However, the report that Saudi Arabia plans to increase production in the coming months weighed on crude oil as it can be seen in the chart below.

Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman, Saudi Arabian Energy Minister, warned that it was too early to declare victory against the COVID-19 virus and that oil producers must remain “extremely cautious”.

“We are in a much better place than we were a year ago, but I must warn, once again, against complacency. The uncertainty is very high, and we have to be extremely cautious,” he told an energy industry event.

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