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Stock Market Lost N331bn to Naira Volatility in 2016



Nigerian stock exchange
  • Stock Market Lost N331bn to Naira Volatility in 2016

The 54.8 per cent depreciation of the naira at the interbank foreign exchange market in 2016 resulted in a N330.99bn drop in the value of the Nigerian equities market.

The equities market posted a N604bn nominal loss in 2016 as the market closed at N9.246tn capitalisation from the N9.850tn recorded a year earlier.

The Central Bank of Nigeria data showed that the interbank exchange rate of the naira to the United States dollar as of the end of last year was N305; while for 2015, it stood at N197. Therefore, a 54.8 per cent year-on-year depreciation of the naira against the greenback led to a market loss of N330.99bn in currency terms.

Thus, in real/aggregate terms, the market posted N934.99bn loss in 2016, with the fall in the value of the naira playing a major role.

The gap between the interbank and parallel market rates of the naira against the dollar also widened significantly during the year, following the immense pressure on the currency, as the parallel market rate exchanged reached a high of N490/dollar at year-end.

In an attempt to bridge the gap between the rates and ease the pressure on the naira, the apex bank introduced the flexible exchange rate system, as well as an over-the-counter foreign exchange futures market on June 15, 2016.

In order to manage the pressure on the naira, the apex bank continued to manage the liquidity level through Open Market Operations and other interventions, hence, the system’s liquidity stood relatively low throughout the year, when compared to the prior year.

The President, Funds Managers Association of Nigeria, Dr. Ore Sofekun, said the country’s equities market had suffered a serious downturn over the last 36 months, driven by the combined effects of political risk (from the uncertain outcome of the 2015 elections), drop in oil prices, and the inadequate policy response to reduced dollar liquidity.

She said the prevailing market circumstances had not spared even large and blue chip companies, as all players in the market were taking a beating in their share prices at the moment.

According to her, companies seeking to raise fresh or additional capital in the Nigerian capital market are finding it increasingly difficult to attract the attention of stock market investors at the moment.

“If a company lists during a downturn like this, investors may price the shares much lower than the value the company’s management expects,” Sofekun added.

Analysing the economy in 2016, the Nigerian Stock Exchange recently said the bottoming out of crude oil prices and a drastic decline in domestic oil output affected crude oil export, which accounts for roughly 90 per cent and 70 per cent of the country’s forex earnings and government revenue, respectively.

This, it noted, resulted in foreign exchange liquidity challenges during the year, as the supply side of the forex to the CBN dropped by over 70 per cent despite heavy domestic demand.

Accordingly, the oil price shocks and the attendant prolonged forex dilemma, coupled with challenges to policy implementation, drove the Nigerian economy into its first recession in over 20 years by the second quarter of the year, the Exchange noted.

To this end, the Chief Executive Officer, NSE, Oscar Onyema, said capital markets tend to act as barometers of any economy; and in Nigeria’s case, the prolonged economic downturn directly impacted an array of products and asset classes on the Exchange.

After peaking at 31,071.25 in June 2016, an increase of 8.48 per cent over the 2015 closing value, the NSE All-Share Index began to retreat to negative territory as total foreign inflow dropped by 45 per cent between June (N42.46bn) and July (N23.43bn).

Onyema said the development was a function of the loss of confidence in the implementation of an announced free floating forex regime; weak corporate performance; and second consecutive quarter of negative economic growth in the period, resulting in the economy entering into a recession.

He explained, “Accordingly, we witnessed the lowest levels of foreign portfolio and domestic trading activities post the global financial crisis, with a year-on-year decline of 69.79 per cent and 56.79 per cent, respectively.

“This trend is consistent with the inverse correlation observed between the value traded on the NSE’s equity market and the spread between the parallel and interbank forex market rates, suggesting that both domestic and foreign investors seek stability in the monetary policy.

“In addition to sluggish performance in secondary markets, primary market activity was non-existent as there were no Initial Public Offers for the year, although there was one new company listed by introduction in the period.”

Amid these challenges, the Exchange said it had resolved to do a better job at promoting its unique value proposition to both global and domestic investors.

According to the bourse, good coordination between fiscal and monetary policies should result in the resolution of the identified structural deficiencies and drive economic growth, going forward.

It stressed, “We expect investors to continue to keep a close watch on the divergence between the interbank forex rate and other exchange rates in the country.

“Accordingly, a convergence of forex rates in the country and the performance of listed corporates will determine the level of market activity in the short term.”

The Director, Institutional Sales, Vetiva Capital Management Limited, Pabina Yinkere, said the current bearish state of the equities market aggravated by naira volatility would only make companies get weaker valuations than they would prefer for quoted firms and those warming up for listing.

The President, Constance Shareholders Association of Nigeria, Shehu Mikail, maintained that the country’s stock market was seriously troubled as the internal inflation was vehemently being strengthened by the forex crisis.

He said the outcome of the last year could repeat itself in 2017 if the government did not intensify its efforts to better the situation, as the stock market would continue to be a reflection of the country’s economic standpoint.

CEO/Founder Investors King Ltd, a foreign exchange research analyst, contributing author on New York-based Talk Markets and, with over a decade experience in the global financial markets.

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Exchange Rate: Dollar to Naira Today, Friday 3 December 2021



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The Nigerian Naira remained under pressure across the board despite efforts by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to prop up the value of the local currency against its global counterparts.

Backed by Nigeria’s foreign reserves, Naira plunged from N306 against the United States Dollar to N414 at the official forex window during the peak of COVID-19 when crude oil dropped to $15 a barrel and eroded Nigeria’s foreign exchange earnings.

Since then, Africa’s largest economy has instituted various forex policies to support the Naira, deepen economic productivity and generally grow activity across key sectors. However, the lack of a stable foreign exchange market has impeded capital importation needed to prop up Naira value as foreign investors continue to stay off the Nigerian market according to the World Bank.

Naira to Dollar Exchange Rate Official Fx Window (FMDQ)

On Thursday, December 2, 2021, the Nigerian Naira opened at N413.94 against the United States Dollar at the Official Forex Window managed by the FMDQ Group.

The local currency sheds 0.06 percent to a greenback by the close of business on Thursday, closing at N414.80 to a United States Dollar.

Analysing the forex spot market, Naira rose to as high as N404 against the American Dollar during the trading house of Thursday before plunging to N444. Trading activity dropped on Thursday as investors traded $139.69 million US dollars, in contrast to $223.8 million transacted on Wednesday.

Naira Black Market Exchange Rates

At the unregulated forex market, the Naira exchanged hoarders and speculators are exchanging the Naira at N558 to United States Dollar.

This was in spite of the CBN efforts at shutting down activity at that section of the forex market given its damages to the nation’s forex market and the fact that Nigerians were almost adopting the black market rate as the official rate.

Experts, including the Vice President, Yemi Osinbajo have blamed the Central Bank of Nigeria for existing of the black market. According to the Vice President, as long as the forex arbitrage exists due to the numerous forex rates, speculators, hoarders and other forex traders will continue to sustain the unregulated black market.

Central Bank of Nigeria’s Official Naira Rates

The CBN quoted rates are the rates the apex bank sells various currencies to Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. The DMBs are however expected to add between N1 to N2 on each rate to cover costs when selling to customers.

Nigerian Naira (NGX) to Bitcoin (BTC)

Bitcoin, the world’s most dominant cryptocurrency, lost 0.13 percent against the Naira to N23.299 million or $56,833 in the last 24 hours.

Against Ethereum (ether), the second most capitalised cryptocurrency, the Naira gained 0.15 percent to N1.874 million.

GTBank Naira Exchange Rates

As of December 2, 2021, GTBank exchanged the Naira to the US Dollar at N480. While the Euro, the Canadian Dollar and the Great Britain Pound were traded at N549, N366 and N649, respectively since August 20, 2021. See other Naira exchange rates below.

Currency Rate Date
USD ₦ 480 02/12/2021
EUR ₦ 549 20/08/2021
CAD ₦ 366 20/08/2021
GBP ₦ 649 16/08/2021

Access Bank Naira Exchange Rates

Currency Rate Date
USD ₦ 450 17/11/2021
EUR ₦ 531 31/08/2021
GBP ₦ 621 27/08/2021
CAD ₦ 357 18/08/2021
ZAR ₦ 31 18/08/2021
INR ₦ 6 18/08/2021
TRY ₦ 52 18/08/2021
AUD ₦ 299 01/05/2021
RUB ₦ 7.10 01/05/2021
SGD ₦ 268 01/05/2021
AED ₦ 109 26/11/2020
XOF ₦ 800 15/08/2020

Sterling Bank Naira Exchange Rates

Currency Rate Date
USD ₦ 480 18/11/2021
GBP ₦ 619 18/11/2021
EUR ₦ 534 13/09/2021
CAD ₦ 344 20/08/2021

Union Bank Naira Exchange Rates

Currency Rate Date
USD ₦ 414 18/11/2021
EUR ₦ 484 13/10/2021
GBP ₦ 569.3 13/10/2021
CAD ₦ 316 01/05/2021

UBA Naira Exchange Rates

Currency Rate Date
USD ₦ 465 18/11/2021
EUR ₦ 566 31/08/2021
GBP ₦ 622 23/07/2021
CAD ₦ 316 01/05/2021
AED ₦ 119 08/08/2020
INR ₦ 6.06 03/08/2020

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Naira Sees Stability at Official Window



Naira - Investors King

The Naira has this week witnessed a steady, unchanged value against the naira as it closed at N415.07 against the dollar on Wednesday (for the fourth straight day), according to the Investors and Exporters window where the Nigerian currency is traded officially.

As mentioned in a previous article, the Naira appears to have found a resting place for its value heading into the festive period. Even though the Naira is now stable, the value may still be too negative for the Nigerian economy, as food prices and prices for other goods keep going on the rise.

The FMDQ group through its website gives updates concerning the currency’s daily trading (opening and closing prices). It also gives updates on the Spot rate and Forward rate; the prices at which the currency trades for transactions throughout that day as well as future transactions which were agreed on that day.

The Spot rate maintained its usual highest value of N404 per dollar, but its lowest value fell as far as N457.02 per dollar. This is considerably lower than the N444 per dollar which it usually attains.

The Forward rate has however seen changes in value, dropping to a high of only N445.97 per dollar, maintaining its lowest price of N457 per dollar.

The FMDQ group also reports the total turnover of the currency in a day, i.e. the total amount of the currency that was traded throughout that day. On Wednesday, it was revealed that the total amount of the dollar that was traded sat at $223.8 million at the close of the day. This is higher than the $152 million which was recorded the previous day.

At the parallel market (which is not recognized by the Central Bank of Nigeria), the Naira was sold at a price of N558 per dollar as it looks to maintain the recovery which it made after hitting an all time low of N575 per dollar in September.

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Naira Stabilizes at N415/$1 at Official Fx Window



Naira - Investors King

The Nigerian currency has continued its trend of closing at N415 per dollar, after it settled to close at that price (which it has closed at consistently since Friday) on Tuesday. This is according to data gathered from the Investors and Exporters window where the Naira is traded officially.

It seems to appear that the Naira has found its resting place at this price, considering the number of days at which it has closed at that particular price. It is now left to see how this currency will trade closer to the festive period.

However, this ‘stability’ cannot be held as a permanent thing, because for this price to be the new normal, it may have to be maintained over a longer period of time. The Central Bank of Nigeria should be making moves to bring the value of the naira back up again, to make things better for Nigerians and Nigeria especially as we approach the Christmas period.

The FMDQ group’s updates of the Spot and Forward exchange rates showed slight changes here and there, with nothing too heavy. The Spot rate did not see any changes from Monday, as it maintained the high of N405 per dollar and a low of N465.97 per dollar.

The Forward rate however witnessed a jump, with Tuesday’s high jumping back to N411 per dollar from N452 per dollar where it sat on Monday. The lowest of the Forward rate further fell to N457 per dollar from the N453 per dollar where it was on Monday.

Those who would benefit the most from Tuesday’s trading round are those who agreed on future deals at prices between N411 and N415 per dollar.

The daily turnover recorded by the FMDQ group on Tuesday sat at $152.98 million, more than $100 million less than the $256 million which Monday recorded.

On Tuesday, the parallel market saw the Naira trade at N565 per dollar. The Central Bank has however stated that it does not reckon with the parallel market.

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